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tv   60 Minutes on CNBC  CNBC  May 25, 2014 9:00pm-10:01pm EDT

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now exercise. that's our edition of 60 minutes on cnbc. i'm bob simon. thanks for joining us. [ticking] [ticking] >> it was in this remote cambodian village that nicholas negroponte came up with his idea to give a laptop computer to every child in the world. >> the first english word of every child in that village was "google." >> [laughs] >> the village has no electricity, no telephone, no television. >> [child's voice] >> and the children take laptops home that are connected, broadband, to the internet. >> and that was just the beginning. >> the one laptop per child computer is a computing revolution. [ticking] [sprightly music] ♪ >> the national youth orchestra is so much in demand, it's on
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the road more than most professional orchestras. ♪ it's been hailed as the future of classical music itself. and it's all about children, about saving them, hundreds of thousands of children, through music. honk! [orchestral music] >> consider the life of jose gregorio hernandez. [dramatic conclusion] ♪ his blindness didn't stop the orchestra from letting him be as much a part of it as any other kid. [whistles and applause] you can see the result for yourself--magical. [ticking] you've probably never seen anything as adorable as a five-day-old elephant. but this story is more about her mother. her name is mpenzi. she is the large lady lending a helping trunk.
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mpenzi didn't grow up in the wild. she was an orphan and was raised here, at an orphanage for elephants in kenya. these kids have all lost a parent to poachers, mainly. and here they're cared for by the gentlest men you've ever met. not only do they spend all day with their elephants; when it's sleep time, they bed down right next to them. welcome to 60 minutes on cnbc. i'm bob simon. in this edition, we visit with a trio seeking to make a difference by offering a helping hand to those in need. we begin with nicholas negroponte, a professor at mit. he's the founder of a nonprofit organization called one laptop per child. his vision is for every child to have a laptop computer, and with it, the possibility of a better future. he recruited a cadre of engineers and programmers who created the low-cost xo laptop.
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it costs less than $200 and is designed to be used in some of the most impoverished places on the planet. as lesley stahl reported in may 2007, negroponte's dream was ambitious. to understand it better, let's go back to where that dream was born: cambodia. >> the idea came to him in a remote village called reaksmy, a four-hour drive on a dirt road from the nearest town. it's as far from mit as you can get. they don't even have running water. >> [bell being struck] >> stand by. >> negroponte and his family founded a school here in 1999, putting in a satellite dish and generators. [generator whirring] then they gave the children laptops. instantly, school became a lot more popular. >> ♪ how's the way ♪ that it's sunny
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>> kids who had never seen a computer before were now crossing the digital divide. >> ♪ it's sunny today >> nicholas negroponte was knocked out. >> the first english word of every child in that village was "google." >> [laughs] >> the village has no electricity, no telephone, no television. [dog barking] >> and the children take laptops home that are connected, broadband, to the internet. >> [child's voice] >> when they take the laptops home, the kids often teach the whole family how to use it. [laughter] >> families loved it 'cause it was the brightest light source in the house. >> 'cause they had no electricity. >> talk about a metaphor and reality simultaneously. it just illuminated that household. >> we have to go to study computer now. yes? >> [children]: yes! >> good. >> once the computers were there, school attendance went way up. >> this year, for example, 50% more children showed up for first grade.
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>> in cambodia? >> yeah, because the kids who were in first grade last year told the other kids, "you know, school is pretty cool." >> negroponte wanted this for all children everywhere. but he realized conventional computers were too expensive, and so his dream was born. and this is it: a low-budget computer for children... >> [speaking portuguese ] >> children like these second-graders in a poor school in sao paulo, brazil. each child has been given his or her own machine as part of a test for the brazilian government to see if they should buy them for all their schoolchildren. this must be pretty exciting for you, to see these children. >> it's very exciting. it's very gratifying. it's been two years in the making. >> the children seem to especially like the built-in camera that takes stills and video. she's taking a picture of us taking a picture of her. >> right. >> it also has wi-fi. she's on the web? >> yeah, she seems to be on the web. >> negroponte's idea was that
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kids don't need teachers to learn the computer. they can pick it up by experimenting on their own, or, as in this case, with help from a friend. >> that is what we're doing, is that that kid is showing this kid. that is key. they get it instantly. it takes a ten-year-old child about three minutes. >> and you're talking about children who've never worked on a computer? >> children who've never, in some cases, seen electricity. >> you go into countries where there may not be enough food, where the children may not have good enough education to even teach them to read. why a laptop? it almost sounds like a luxury for these people who need so much more than that. >> let me take two countries, pakistan and nigeria. 50% of the children in both of those countries are not in school. >> at all. >> at all. they have no schools; they don't even have trees under which a teacher might stand. >> you're saying, give them a
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laptop even if they don't go to school? >> especially if they don't go to school. >> oh, my. >> if they don't go to school, this is school in a box. >> negroponte took a leave of absence from mit and has done little else but work on this ever since. so, nicholas negroponte... >> yes. >> what's in it for you? >> nothing. absolutely nothing. >> he says it's purely humanitarian and nonprofit. with start-up money from google and other big companies, he assembled a team of engineers and programmers to come up with something that would stand up to third world conditions. >> you can pour water on the keyboard. you can dip it into--you know, you can dip the base into a bathtub. you can carry it in the rain. it's more robust than your normal laptop. it doesn't even have holes in the side, if you look at it. you know, dirt, sand--i mean, there's no place for it to go into the machine. >> again, designed for the child. >> yes. >> it looks like a toy on purpose. but it's a serious computer with many innovations. for instance, it's the first
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laptop with a screen you can use outdoors in full sunlight. walter bender, the president of software on the project, says there are loads of new features. you can draw on it... >> use a pen. >> or compose music. >> [music playing] >> it actually looks like an animal. these are meant to look like ears, right? >> right, these "ears" are the way in which the laptop communicates to the rest of the world. so the laptop "listens" with these ears--those are the radio antennas. >> i don't have that on my computer. >> no, and one of the reasons why this computer has probably two or three times better wi-fi range than your computer is because you don't have that. >> how long does the battery work? >> by the time we're done with all our tuning, the battery should last 10, 12 hours... >> really? >> with heavy use. >> if the battery does run out, and you live in a thatch hut in the middle of nowhere, you can charge it up with a crank or a salad spinner. so you do this for about a
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minute or two... >> give it a minute or two, and you get ten or 20 minutes of reading. [ticking] >> coming up: the high stakes rivalry of low-cost computers. >> craig barrett is intel's chairman of the board. >> negroponte believes that you're trying to drive him out. >> we're not trying to drive him out of business. we're trying to bring capability to young people. >> has intel hurt you and the mission? >> yes, intel has hurt the mission enormously. >> that's ahead, when 60 minutes on cnbc returns. [ticking] captain: this is a tip. bellman: thanks, captain obvious.
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[ticking] >> the one laptop per child computer is a computing revolution. >> wayan vota is so fascinated by this computer, he has a website devoted to it. >> it's an entire change in the way that you use computers, and at the same time... >> you can pour a glass of water on it, and it won't break. >> yes. it's waterproof. i can't wait to type outside with a computer for hours without worrying about dust or heat. so the one laptop per child technology is cutting edge. it's clock-stopping hot. >> but he doesn't buy negroponte's contention that kids can figure it out without a teacher. >> if you hand a child a violin or piano, they can make noise with it, right? but will they be able to make music? and if you give a child a computer, they'll be able to operate the computer, but will they really be able to learn without having a teacher, whether it's formal or informal, to help them along that learning path?
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>> he says there are other problems. for poor countries like cambodia, there are costs beyond the price of the computer, like satellites to connect to the internet. and what about theft? what says an older kid isn't just gonna swipe this thing? seems like it's inevitable. >> we've spent a lot of time on security. if this is stolen from a child, within 24 hours, it stops working. >> so everybody's testing different computers up here. >> yeah. >> but one laptop has had to contend with a new challenge: competition. this lab in sao paulo is testing two other laptops the brazilian government is thinking of buying for schoolchildren, including one made in india and negroponte's biggest competitor, the classmate, by the giant chipmaker intel. what do you think of this one? >> it's just like a small laptop, miniature laptop. >> so it's purely humanitarian. you did it only to help the poor kids around the world.
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why did other companies, for-profit companies, decide they wanted a piece of this action? >> because the numbers are so large, they look at the numbers, and they say, "if we're not in those, we're toast." >> here in brazil, there are 55 million schoolchildren, most of them poor. many live in favelas like this one. in china, there are 200 million. worldwide, nicholas negroponte says, the potential number of kids who could get his laptop is over a billion, a fact that has not gone unnoticed by intel and other high tech companies. intel gave every student in this class in mexico a classmate, which negroponte believes is part of an effort to kill him off. >> it's predatory. >> at a lecture at mit, he accused intel of dumping, of going to the same governments he's trying to sell to and offering the classmate below cost. >> intel should be ashamed of itself.
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it's just--it's just shameless. >> craig barrett is intel's chairman of the board. >> negroponte believes that you're trying to drive him out. >> we're not trying to drive him out of business. we're trying to bring capability to young people. and it's more than just intel. it's gonna take the whole industry to do this. >> barrett flies around the world bringing computers to schools and places like malinalco, mexico. >> do you like the computers? >> ¿les gustan las computadoras? >> all: si. >> he says that like negroponte, intel just wants to help kids get affordable computers, and that they would be willing to reach an accommodation with one laptop. >> there are lots of opportunities for us to work together. that's why, when you say this is competition, and we're trying to drive him out of business, this is crazy. >> not to negroponte, who says the rivalry goes back to when he first introduced the one laptop and barrett dismissed it as a gadget. for nicholas negroponte, it's not just business. it's personal. it's about his dream, his baby.
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has intel hurt you and the mission? >> yes, intel has hurt the mission enormously. >> he thought he'd have millions of orders, but countries that had once promised to buy in bulk haven't. and so negroponte spends almost all his time lobbying government officials to buy the laptops. >> i heard that you travel more than 300 days a year. >> yes, it's true, sadly. >> there are only 365 days a year. >> i actually travel about 330 of them. >> he says he's confident his mission will succeed, even though he's about to face even more competition, as other companies are working on low-cost laptops. but that will result in more kids getting computers, which is, after all, what negroponte said he wanted in the first place. you know, you call your project one laptop per child. and you mean that every kid in the entire world is going to have a laptop. >> yes. >> is that realistic? >> if i was realistic, i wouldn't have started this project, okay?
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>> okay. >> so it's not realistic... >> it's the dream. >> but we'll get close. >> since our first report aired in 2007, both the xo laptop and the intel classmate have received upgrades and are used by children at home and in classrooms across the globe. nicholas negroponte continues his one laptop per child mission. craig barrett retired as intel's chairman in may, 2009. [ticking] [dramatic orchestral music] ♪ coming up, venezuela's unique music program. [jazzy music] ♪ >> en el fondo, es un sistema esencialmente social-- >> at its root, this is a social system that fights poverty. a child's physical poverty is overcome by the spiritual
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richness that comes from music. >> so music actually becomes the vehicle for social change. >> without a doubt. and that's what's happening in venezuela. [rousing orchestral music] ♪ the musical mission of el sistema, when 60 minutes on cnbc returns. [ticking] really... so our business can be on at&t's network for $175 dollars a month?
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[ticking] >> venezuela is perhaps best known as an oil producer and a pipeline for major league baseball players. it's also the home of a music program that's so extraordinary, it's been hailed as the future of classical music itself. it's called el sistema, the system. and as we reported in april 2008, it's all about children, about saving them, hundreds of thousands of children, through music.
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[dramatic orchestral music] ♪ >> in the world of classical music, the simon bolivar national youth orchestra is unique. [jazzy music] the musicians, kids mainly, are not graduates of some conservatory or music school. they're alumni of the school of hard knocks in the slums of venezuela. the orchestra performs around the world with gustavo dudamel, its celebrated young conductor. performing in the grand and opulent concert halls of europe is a long way from the orchestra's home in venezuela. many of the kids come from neighborhoods which are so poor, desperate, and crime-ridden, that hope is often extinguished in children at an early age. instead, these kids travel the
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world playing to sellout audiences. the national youth orchestra and hundreds of others are the brainchild of dr. jose antonio abreu, who started the first one back in 1975. do you remember the night you first started? >> teniamos once muchachos. >> we only had 11 children rehearsing in cramped conditions. but i had the feeling this was the beginning of something very big. >> dr. breu, a retired economist, trained musician, and social reformer, founded the system and has built it with religious zeal, based on his unorthodox belief that what poor venezuelan kids needed was classical music. >> at its root, this is a social system that fights poverty. a child's physical poverty is overcome by the spiritual richness that comes from music. >> so music actually becomes the
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vehicle for social change? >> without a doubt. and that's what's happening in venezuela. >> it happens in neighborhoods like this one on the outskirts of caracas. every afternoon, small children line up for free music lessons at a local branch of the system. raphael elster runs one. >> how old are they when you first get them? >> kindergarten, like two years old. >> two years old. >> yeah. learning music. >> two-year-olds start learning the basics: rhythm, and the language of music. by the time they're four, they're being taught how to play an instrument. by the time they're six- or seven-year-old veterans, they're playing in orchestras. >> a regular kid who will play in two or three years, we make it happen in three, four months. >> how do you do that? >> we work hard. and they love it. >> hard work is an understatement. every day after school, throughout venezuela, you can see kids practicing.
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15,000 trained musicians work with them, but the system also uses gifted kids to teach other kids. on top of eight hours of schoolwork, it makes for a long day. [low tuba note] >> so a kid is here from 7:00 in the morning till 6:00 in the evening? >> 12 hours, almost. >> every day. >> every day, from monday to saturday. they only have sunday. >> only sunday to get into trouble. >> to practice at home. [laughs] >> home, for most of the kids in raphael's program, is called sarria, one of the poorest and most crime-ridden neighborhoods in caracas. >> these people, they don't have, almost, anything. so they decide to build a house here, and it's, like, five people per room. >> the worst section of sarria is a labyrinth of illegal shacks and alleyways built into the side of a ravine. >> and 80%, 90% of our kids come from here. so if you can see the kind of construction--it's really bad. it's really poor. >> how dangerous is it here?
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>> pretty dangerous. so you cannot be walking around here by yourself. >> not even you. >> not even me. no one. no one. even the people from the neighborhood can get robbed here. hola. so--well, it's part of the poverty. [playing melody on violin] ♪ >> in the midst of that poverty, the system uses classical music to instill self-esteem and confidence. popular music, raphael says, wouldn't work. >> what they have at home, in the radio, is popular music all the time. their father, who drinks every day, he get drunk with that music. so you have to give them something different. and when they sit in one of these chairs in the orchestra, they think they're in another country in another planet, and they start changing. >> we're listening to it now, aren't we? >> yeah. [ticking] >> coming up, venezuela's
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leonard bernstein. [dramatic orchestral music] ♪ you think that the system is changing venezuela? >> absolutely. 300,000 kids playing music. in the future, a million. i'm sure of this. when venezuela--venezuela will be full of orchestras. now is full; will be more. i think we are helping a lot, and the orchestra now is a symbol of the country. it's like the flag. >> superstar conductor gustavo dudamel, when 60 minutes on cnbc returns. [ticking]
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ya know, cause we're going to start making babies. let's do it. what? yeah. now? yeah. barb's right there. not that part. oh. yeah. that moment you decide to buy. that's your moment of trulia. you could win 50 thousand dollars for your next home. visit trulia.com slash win today. [ticking] [rousing orchestral music] ♪ >> their sound may be a little rough, but what they lack in experience the kids make up for with enthusiasm. [jazzy orchestral music] ♪ >> gozalo. ay, valeria. [trumpet solo] ♪
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>> trumpeter paola chistori says the system teaches kids a lot more than how to play an instrument. >> niños que no tienen... >> kids who are poor wouldn't be able to join an orchestra on their own. it's really good, because not only do they learn a daily routine, but they also learn another culture. >> when you came here, did you start playing the trumpet right away? >> i chose the violin first. but then i decided i liked the trumpet. >> what is it about the trumpet that you like? >> the sound. i pretty much like everything about it. >> [speaking spanish] >> there are nearly 300,000 kids like paola in the system. there are 176 orchestras for children, 216 for young people, and 400 more ensembles, orchestras, and choirs. the sound of children playing classical music is everywhere. if it seems they're playing as if their lives depend on it, dr. abreu says, they do.
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>> 800,000 children have passed through the system in 32 years. >> the majority of them have not, will not become musicians. >> music produces an irreversible transformation in a child. this doesn't mean he'll end up as a professional musician. he may become a doctor or study law or teach literature. what music gives him remains indelibly part of who he is forever. >> take lennar acosta. we first met him in 2000, when he was serving time in a juvenile detention center in caracas. he was 17, had a violent criminal background, and the scars to prove it. when the detention center started an orchestra, lennar tried the clarinet. ed bradley asked him about it. >> tell me what it was like the first time you picked it up to play it. >> it's completely different than when you hold a gun. >> do you think that your life today is different
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because of the clarinet, because of the orchestra? >> si. mucho. >> yeah. a lot. music taught me how to treat people without violence. >> that's not all he learned. we caught up with him one morning on his way to work in germany. the system sent him here to work as an apprentice learning how to build and maintain organs. back in venezuela, lennar will be responsible for maintaining the organ in the system's new headquarters. the day we were there, the national youth orchestra, made up of the system's best musicians, was rehearsing. their conductor, gustavo dudamel, is the orchestra's first international superstar... [dramatic music] ♪ and a product of dr. abreu's system, which, in the beginning, most people thought would never work. >> for a lot of people, he was a crazy man. kids?
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venezuelan? poor? playing classical music? oh, my god. >> dr. abreu often says that the system saves children. saves them from what? >> from a lot of things. we have cases with kids with big problems. and they change their life with music. >> consider the life of jose gregorio hernandez. [passionate music] ♪ his blindness didn't stop the orchestra from letting him be as much a part of it as any other kid. [whistling, cheering, and applause] you can see the result for yourself. magical. do you think that the system is changing venezuela? >> absolutely. 300,000 kids play music.
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in the future, a million. i'm sure of this. when venezuela--venezuela will be full of orchestras. now is full; will be more. i think we are helping a lot, and the orchestra now is a symbol of the country. it's like the flag. >> like the flag. the national youth orchestra shows the flag every time it travels abroad. it's so much in demand, it's on the road more than most professional orchestras. we found them in london, where they performed before a packed audience at royal albert hall. [quirky, dreamy music] ♪ back home, their success is a source of national pride. but all that comes at a price. the system's annual budget is 80 million dollars. most of it comes from the
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venezuelan government. dr. abreu has kept the program alive through eight venezuelan governments. but he's always on the phone, looking for additional funding, even at a concert. >> excuse me. >> sure. not surprisingly, the system's need for all kinds of instruments is enormous. so, since 1995, they've been making some of their own from scratch. they sound pretty good. even so... >> we are literally begging all over the world. everyone who has a penny, who can give us to buy a string, a violin, a trumpet, shoes, whatever, we can help these kids. >> a trumpet or shoes. >> yeah--both if it's possible. >> do you think the system could work in the united states? >> yeah. if you can help a poor kid in here, you can help a poor kid everywhere. it doesn't matter the culture. it doesn't matter the race.
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i mean, it's music. everybody love music. >> especially when it's played like this. the system's motto is "tocar, hinchar," spanish for "to play and to fight." in venezuela, it's often the same thing. [dramatic finale] ♪ [cheers and applause] since our report first aired, gustavo dudamel became the music director of the los angeles philharmonic. despite taking that prestigious position in september 2009, dudamel continues to work as the artistic director of the simon bolivar orchestra. el sistema continues to thrive as well, both at home and around the world. as of april 2012, more than 25 countries, including the united states, have launched music programs modeled on el sistema.
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[ticking] coming up: the deadly impact of ivory poaching. do you see any correlation between the decision to auction off the ivory and the number of orphans? >> we do. every time ivory is auctioned legally, there's a rise in poaching. kenya's elephant orphanage, when 60 minutes on cnbc returns. [ticking] vo: once upon a time
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15 minutes could save you 15% or more. [ticking] >> can you imagine an orphanage that's a happy place? we couldn't, but then we found one. it's an orphanage for elephants located just outside nairobi in kenya. the elephants have been orphaned because their parents--their mothers, mainly--have been killed by poachers for their ivory. as we reported in april 2009, a young elephant can only survive a day or two without milk. so the orphanage's first job is to feed them. the principal of the orphanage--the principal, headmistress, head nurse, and ceo--is dame daphne sheldrick. she founded the place and has been working with elephants for 50 years. >> this is little seguta. this is the one that was in a coma... >> oh, right. >> when she arrived, was on a drip for 24 hours. we never thought she'd be alive in the morning.
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so she's our little miracle, this one. >> but daphne's problem is that she's caring for too many miracles. poachers are killing more and more elephants for their tusks, creating more and more orphans. a few african countries have been given the right to sell their ivory stockpiles--more than 100 tons of tusks--to china and japan. and conservationists point out, this is yet another blow to africa's elephants. do you see any correlation between the decision to auction off the ivory and the number of orphans? >> we do. every time ivory is auctioned legally, there's a rise in poaching. and we also see a correlation in the price that's paid to the poacher for illegal ivory. >> is the price going up? >> it's gone from 300 shillings a kilo to 5,000. >> that's about $1,000 a tusk. and in kenya, just in this year alone, 2008, the number of elephants killed by poachers has increased by 45%. a rather amazing rise, isn't it?
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>> it is; it's a scary, frightening rise. >> poachers were behind the death of this elephant. her trunk was caught in one of their snares, and she had no way of feeding herself or her six-week-old baby boy. he just couldn't accept the fact that his mother was dead, so he continued trying to suckle. eventually, the keepers got him to drink their milk. they called him shimba, and he was in such bad shape that nobody thought he would survive. but then he was brought to the orphanage, and things began going his way. he's 27 months old now and is in very good shape--very muscular, very strong, and he's beginning to grow tusks. he never stops eating. in fact, that's the first love of every orphan here: eating. the institution has a dining area, and that's not all. as we found out when we first dropped by here in 2006, it has everything you'd want in an orphanage: dormitories, each orphan has a private room, a communal bath, and a playground.
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the regimen at the orphanage is anything but dickensian. unlike oliver twist, when one of these orphans asks for more, that's what he gets: more. ultimately, daphne finds elephants more sympathetic than people. what is the most extraordinary thing you have learned about elephants? >> their tremendous capacity for caring is, i think, perhaps the most amazing thing about them even at a very, very young age, their sort of forgiveness, unselfishness. so, you know, i often say, as i think i've said before, they have all the best attributes of us humans and not very many of the bad. >> just about the best people you've ever met are the gentle men who work here. keepers, they're called, and they have extraordinary jobs. there is one keeper per elephant. he'll spend 24 hours a day with his charge, seven days a week. a keeper feeds his elephant every three hours, day and night, just like mom would.
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he keeps his elephant warm, not like mom would, but with a blanket. and when it's sleep time, he beds down right next to his elephant. if he leaves, if ever so briefly, the baby wakes up and broadcasts his displeasure. the keepers are rotated now and then so that no elephant gets too terribly attached to any one of them. at dawn, the elephants are taken from their dorms out to the bush. they hang out for a while, play some games. >> come, come, come, come. come, come. come on, here. come on. >> soccer is a favorite. >> come on, come on. come on, come on, come on. >> and guess who decides when it's halftime? >> [chuckling] >> the days are pretty much the same here, but on fridays, the orphanage becomes a spa. >> you want to rub her down? go on, rub her down. the keepers give the elephants a coconut oil massage.
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>> we can't do exactly what the mother can do, but we do something close to that. >> you're a surrogate mother. >> yes. >> edwin lusichi is the head of the keepers. he is the chief elephant man. >> this one here is lualeni. lualeni's the oldest female we have--16 months as well. the tiny one here is makena. [chuckles] >> [chuckles] right. >> always want to be close with lualeni. >> yes, well, they always want to be close to each other and to you, don't they? >> [laughing] >> i'm afraid this interview with edwin is getting rudely interrupted. >> [chuckling] yeah. >> but there's really not that much to do. they may be little, they may be orphans, but trust me, they're not as little as they look. in fact, i feel like i'm in an elephant sandwich. >> yes, you are. >> perhaps the problem was, we had not been properly introduced. there is a protocol to meeting an elephant.
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he will offer up his trunk, and he expects you to blow in it. that way, he will remember your scent forever. you will never be strangers again. [ticking] coming up: handling heartbreak. how do you manage going through this all the time? >> well, you don't have much option, do you? there's another one to look after, and then another one coming, and, you know... you just have to turn the page. >> that's ahead, when 60 minutes on cnbc returns. [ticking]
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you have time to shop for car insurance today? yeah. i heard about progressive's "name your price" tool? i guess you can tell them how much you want to pay and it gives you a range of options to choose from. huh? i'm looking at it right now. oh, yeah? yeah. what's the... guest room situation? the "name your price" tool, making the world a little more progressive.
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>> the little baby's been captured. >> the orphanage gets distress calls from all over kenya, from all over east africa, that a baby elephant is on his own, often because his mother has been killed by a poacher. it is then a matter of great urgency. an orphaned elephant can only survive a few days without his mother. the baby elephant is loaded onto a plane and flown back to daphne sheldrick's orphanage outside nairobi, where he'll stay until he's strong enough to go back into the bush. dame daphne has been running the orphanage for over 30 years. she was born and raised in kenya, and married david sheldrick, africa's leading crusader against poaching. when he died in 1977, she founded the david sheldrick wildlife trust. daphne saw her mission as saving as many elephants as possible. but she has never permitted herself too much hope. that's because she loses half
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the elephants that arrive here, some from pneumonia, some from trauma. this elephant probably witnessed its mother's death and remembers everything. that's the double-edged sword of having the memory of an elephant--they never forget. >> you know, he's still grieving for his elephant family, he's in shock, he's distressed. >> do you believe a baby elephant can die of grief? >> oh, yes. i know he can. they're terribly, terribly fragile. you've got to try and turn their psyche round, duplicating what that elephant would have had in an elephant family, touching them, talking to him gently. >> in other words, love. >> tender loving care--tlc, and a lot of it. >> daphne and the keepers may run this place officially, but it's the elephants who are really in charge. for example, when a new keeper is hired, he's on probation for three months. then, if the elephants like him, he's got a job. if not, he's out. what do you try to teach them? >> well, we have to teach them
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not to be naughty, not to push around with the others, and to obey one another-- just like you have to do to your children, your own children-- and to respect the others. >> and the keepers teach the elephants how to be elephants. there are wild elephant things these kids don't know how to do--mother wasn't around to teach them--things like covering themselves in dust to prevent sunburn. the keepers do it with shovels until the elephants pick it up themselves. [elephants vocalizing] the orphanage has an infirmary, and the doctor has a call to make. one of the elephants is not doing well at all. he's been on antibiotics for two days now, but he can barely breathe. >> all this froth that's coming out of his trunk has got to be pulmonary edema. >> his room looks like an intensive care unit. the doctor, daphne, and the keepers don't leave him for a minute. they do everything they can, but it's not enough. by dawn, he is dead.
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how do you manage going through this all the time? >> well, you don't have much option, do you. there's another one to look after, and then another one coming, and, you know, you just have to turn the page. >> and you get attached-- >> but i'm not very good at it. >> and you're not going to get any better, are you. >> no. not after 50 years. >> but then you go and you hang out with the orphans who are doing so well, and it brings joy to your life. >> absolutely. >> it's actually a pretty lush life for these elephants here at the orphanage. but it's not the life of a wild elephant. it's not their destiny. so like any good school, this place prepares its students to leave, to get ready for life in the real world, to go back to the wild from whence they came. [elephant trumpets] this young lady left daphne's orphanage to go live in the wild. her name is mpenzi.
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and a couple of years ago, she became pregnant and decided to go off on her own to give birth without the protection of her extended family. that was a mistake. before the sun could set, mpenzi and her baby were surrounded by a pride of 16 lions. keeper joseph sauni was called to the scene and captured the events on his still camera. >> so mpenzi was standing there trying to scare off lions with her trunk. >> yeah. >> but when they came, she tried to push them on this side, others come on the back. >> mpenzi didn't have a chance. >> yeah. >> how did you and the other keepers react? >> it was so, so sad. and for a day, everybody was crying. >> and there was nothing they could do to save the baby. it was a brutal lesson for mpenzi: nature has its own laws. they're a long way from the sheltered world of the orphanage. but this story has a happy ending. just days before we arrived, mpenzi gave birth to another
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little girl. the keepers have all come out to cheer her on. they named her asante, which, in swahili, means "thank you." mpenzi has learned her lesson. this time, she makes sure her bundle of joy is surrounded by other members of the family. they help her up when she falls down, and rescue her when she tumbles into a mud hole. so for the moment, asante will be safe--at least until she grows tusks. dame daphne sheldrick continues to care for elephant orphans in kenya and to campaign against the illegal trading of ivory. that's still an enormous problem in africa. in 2011, an investigator seized almost 24 metric tons of illegally harvested ivory, the largest haul since records began being kept in 1989 and double the amount seized in 2010.
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well, that's our edition of 60 minutes on cnbc. i'm bob simon. thank you for joining us. [ticking] >> imagine a store with no signs in the aisles, a store that doesn't bag your purchases, one that never advertises, where you have to pay a fee just to walk in the door. who in the world would shop here? as it turns out, about 3 million fanatically loyal customers every day. it's called costco... >> i love costco. >> i bought ground beef. >> lawn furniture. >> a television. >> i bought my engagement ring here. >> ...a chain of stripped-down warehouses that's become a sensation at home and abroad. >> [ speaking chinese ] >> but its crowning achievement -- convincing you

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